1. Projection (Freud, 1894; Willick, 1993)—You attribute your own stuff to another person.
2. Introjection (Freud, 1917; A.Freud, 1936, 1992; Sandler, 1960; Meissner, 1970; Volkan, 1976)—You form an image of another person.
3. Hallucination (Garma, 1969; Arlow & Brenner, 1964)—You see or hear what you are trying not to think about—wishes, comments, fantasies, or criticisms—with no reality testing.
4. Projective Identification (Kernberg, 1975)—Three common ways this term is used:
a. Projecting so much of yourself onto someone else that you massively distort him or her.
b. Stimulating in someone else your unpleasant affects (“misery loves company”).
c. Stimulating in someone else your unpleasant affects, plus acting like the person who had made you feel so bad.
5. Projective Blaming (Spruiell, 1989)—You unfairly blame somebody else for your problem.
6. Denial (A.Freud, 1936; Moore & Rubinfine, 1969)—Assumes you’ve perceived reality (reality sense is functional):
a. Denial per se: Disavowal of a reality in spite of overwhelming evidence of its existence.
b. Denial in deed: Behavior that symbolically says, “That nasty reality isn’t true!”
c. Denial in fantasy: Maintaining erroneous beliefs so you won’t have to see the reality.
d. Denial by words: Using special words to convince yourself of the falsity of a reality.
7. Dedifferentiation (Self-Object Fusion) (Mahler, 1968)—You become whatever someone else wants you to be.
8. Splitting (Kernberg, 1975)—You see certain people as purely hostile (McDevitt, 1985), and others as purely loving. Or, you now hate the devil you loved.
9. Animism (Freud, 1913; Mahler, 1968)—You give human qualities to nonhuman entities.
10. Deanimation (Mahler, 1968)—The person you see isn’t human, so you don’t have to worry.
11. Reaction-Formation (A.Freud, 1936; Gorelik, 1931)—You feel opposite (e.g., so nice you can’t tell you’re angry).
12. Undoing and Rituals—You go against your conscience (superego). Or you do what you feel guilty about and atone by punishing yourself in another symbolic act.
13. Isolation (of Affect) (C.Brenner, 1982a)—You are unaware of the sensation of affects.
14. Externalization (Glover, 1955)—You think “Society” will criticize you, but actually you feel guilty.
15. Turning on the Self (Freud, 1917; A.Freud, 1936)—You’re angry at someone, but attack/kill yourself instead.
16. Negativism (Levy & Inderbitzin, 1989)—You refuse to cooperate, and treat other people condescendingly.
17. Compartmentalization (Freud, 1926)—You inhibit yourself from making connections.
18. Hostile aggression (Symonds, 1946; McDevitt, 1985)—You get into fights to hide unpleasant feelings.
19. Displacement (Freud, 1900a; Arlow & Brenner, 1964)—You feel one way toward a person, but shift it to another person or situation.
20. Symbolization (Freud, 1900a; Arlow & Brenner, 1964)—You give irrational meaning to some aspect of mental functioning.
21. Condensation (Freud, 1900a; Arlow & Brenner, 1964)—You weld together disparate ideas that are contiguous.
22. Illusion Formation or Daydreaming (Raphling, 1996)—You consciously visualize a scene that is upsetting or pleasant, and know it’s a fantasy.
23. Prevarication (Karpman, 1949)—You lie on purpose, for a reason.
24. Confabulation (Spiegel, 1985; Target, 1998)—You lie without knowing it, to relieve lowered self-esteem.
25. Repression (Freud, 1923; Arlow & Brenner, 1964)—You forget thoughts without wanting to.
26. Negative Hallucination (Wimer, 1989)—You don’t see something upsetting that’s right in front of you.
27. Libidinal Regression [Psychosexual Regression] (Freud, 1905, 1926)— You are afraid of sex and assertiveness, so you become dependant (oral) or stubborn (anal) instead.
28. Ego Regression—Three ways this term is used :
a. Interference with a function: Your ego function or ego strength stops working, so you can’t feel something unpleasant.
b. Reversion to earlier defense mechanisms: You start using defense mechanisms that arose in an early stage of development.
c. Inefficient defensive operations: Your defenses fail to shut off affect, and the failure relieves guilt by punishing you.
29. Temporal Regression—You focus on earlier times to not think about current conflict.
30. Topographic Regression (Arlow & Brenner, 1964)—You dream to avoid painful reality.
31. Suppression (Werman, 1985)—You purposely try to forget.
32. Identification with a Fantasy—You act like your favorite hero or heroine.
33. Identification with Parents’ Unconscious or Conscious Wishes/Fantasies (Johnson & Szurek, 1952)—You do as your parents forbid, act out their corrupt wishes, and get punished.
34. Identification with the Ideal Image or Object (Jacobson, 1964)—You think and act like someone you think is great.
35. Identification with the Aggressor (A.Freud, 1936)—You act abusive to a person because someone has acted abusive to you. This protects you from feeling angry.
36. Identification with the Victim (MacGregor, 1991)—You act like someone else by either allowing or seeking victimization. You do this as a rescue wish or to fight off your own anger or guilt.
37. Identification with the Lost Object (Freud, 1917)—You act like a lost loved one. If you keep souvenirs and never grieve, you’ve got “established pathological mourning” (Volkan, 1987a).
38. Identification with the Introject (Sandler, 1960)—You make an introject part of your superego.
39. Seduction of the Aggressor (Loewenstein, 1957)—You seduce someone sexually or sycophantically to relieve fear.
40. Sublimation (A.Freud, 1936)—You engage in an activity that symbolically represents a fantasy.
41. Provocation (Freud, 1916; Berliner, 1947; C.Brenner, 1959, 1982a)—You get other people to have sex with or punish you, or both.
42. Rationalization (Symonds, 1946)—You make excuses to relieve tension, usually after denying some reality.
43. Rumination—You “overanalyze” and “spin your wheels” trying to solve problems.
44. Counterphobic Behavior (Blos, 1962, 1979)—You do exactly what scares you.
45. Intellectualization (A.Freud, 1936)—You get cranked up about a peculiar theory of behavior.
46. Socialization and Distancing (Sutherland, 1980)—You use your social ability to distract yourself from painful thoughts.
47. Instinctualization of an Ego Function (Hartmann, 1955)—You attach symbolic meaning to an ego function (e.g., “Washing dishes is women’s work” irrationally equates a certain type of work with gender).
48. Inhibition of an Ego Function (Freud, 1926)—Your instinctualized ego function clashes with guilt, so you shut off the function (e.g., you can’t read because reading is equated with forbidden sexual activity [Anthony, 1961]).
49. Idealization: (Kernberg, 1975; Kohut, 1971)—You overvalue someone because of:
a. narcissism (Freud, 1914a): to relieve shame over your inadequacy
b. narcissism (Kohut, 1971): you fuse the person with your overestimated self-image (“selfobject”)
c. love: to not experience disappointments
d. transference (Freud, 1914b): they’re like a wonderful parent, when you were little.
50. Devaluation—You look down on someone to preserve your own selfesteem.
51. Humor (Zwerling, 1955; Vaillant, 1992)—You use kidding around to avoid painful feelings. If you get extremely wound up, you’re hypomanic (Lewin, 1950; Almansi, 1961).
52. Concretization (Blos, 1979)—You stop using abstract thinking (which you have); you blame a “chemical imbalance” or look for a virus to avoid thinking relationships make you upset.
53. Disidentification (Greenson, 1968)—You endeavor not to be like one of your parents.
54. Group formation (Freud, 1921)—You surround yourself to guard against sexual impulses.
55. Asceticism (A.Freud, 1936)—You avoid contact with humans.
56. Ipsisexual Object Choice—Your same-sex “buddy” allays fear of heterosexual stimulation.
57. One affect versus Another (Ackerman & Jahoda, 1948)—You focus on one emotion to avoid another.
58. Hyperabstraction—You abuse theories. If you also deny and reconstruct reality, you’re probably psychotic.
59. Reticence—You stop speaking to avoid being found out.
60. Garrulousness—You’re talking too much, but aren’t circumstantial or tangential.
61. Avoidance—You stay away from situations due to the conflicts they generate.
62. Passivity—You automatically adopt a compliant or submissive attitude in the face of aggression.
63. Grandiosity/Omnipotence (Freud, 1913; Kohut, 1971; Kernberg, 1975; Lachmann & Stolorow, 1976; Blackman, 1987)—You are God’s gift to earth, have special powers.
64. Passive to Active—“You can’t fire me; I quit!” You control your own victimization.
65. Somatization (Kernberg, 1975; Deutsch, 1959)—You focus on your body to avoid conflicts with oral, sexual, or hostile impulses.
66. Normalization (Alpert & Bernstein, 1964)—You convince yourself you are normal despite obvious psychopathology.
67. Dramatization—You inject emotion into your speech to relieve conflict about being noticed.
68. Impulsivity (Lustman, 1966)—You use sex, eating, or hostility to relieve tension or an unpleasant affect.
69. Substance Abuse (Wurmser, 1974)—You use a concoction to quell unpleasurable affects.
70. Clinging (Schilder, 1939)—Clutching onto a person who rejects you.
71. Whining—Complaining, you don’t see the infantile quality of your wish to be taken care of.
72. Pseudoindependence—You become the Lone Ranger, not allowing anyone to help you.
73. Pathological altruism (A.Freud, 1936)—Actually projection and identification with the victim: you deny oral urges, project them onto the needy, then vicariously feel nurtured.
74. Gaslighting (Calef & Weinshel, 1981; Dorpat, 2000)—You cause people to be mentally disturbed or to believe they are.
75. Minimization—You are conscious of a painful reality but give that reality little weight.
76. Exaggeration (Sperling, 1963)—You make too much of a deal over something.
77. Generalization (Loeb, 1982)—To not hate someone, you see him as part of an evil group.
78. Reconstruction of Reality (Freeman, 1962)—You reinvent a situation after denying the reality.
79. Transference (Freud, 1914b; A.Freud, 1936; Loewenstein, 1957; Marcus, 1971, 1980; Blum, 1982)—You shift memories of past situations and relationships onto a current person. You then use old defenses to forget the past or to master it by living it again symbolically or changing the ending.
80. Dissociation—(1) You forget a whole aspect of yourself. If you name it Butch, you are probably psychotic (Frosch, 1983; Gardner, 1994). (2) You get someone to define you, then reject his or her ideas (Whitmer, 2001).
81. Photophobia (Abraham, 1913)—You avoid the light to avoid your scoptophilic (voyeuristic) impulses.
82. Apathy (Greenson, 1949)—You have no particular interest in engaging in an activity.
83. Intimidation of Others—Bullying (Knight, 1942; Blackman, 2003)—You put others on guard to relieve your own anxiety.
84. Compensation for Deficiencies (Ackerman & Jahoda, 1948)—You ostracize those who are more integrated than you are.
85. Psychogenic Tic (Aarons, 1958)—Twitching to relieve tension/anger.
86. Introspection (Kohut, 1959; Fogel, 1995)—You preoccupy yourself with inner musings to relieve tension or to sidestep external realities.
87. Qualified Agreement (Abend, 1975)—You partly agree as a way of avoiding rebelliousness.
88. Instinctualization of an Ego Weakness (Blackman, 1991a)—You give a gender connotation to your weakness in affect-tolerance or impulse control (masculine or feminine).
89. Inauthenticity (Akhtar, 1994)—You fake it, perhaps habitually.
90. Hyper-Rationality (Spruiell, 1989)—You use secondary process to avoid affects.
91. Vagueness (Paniagua, 1999)—You hide details.
92. Hyper-Aestheticism (Paniagua, 1999)—You get into beauty and truth, avoiding reality or affects.
93. Glibness—You speak readily but don’t mean much of it.
94. Physical Violence (Glasser, 1992)—You “nullify the object,” halting your hatred.
95. Identification with the Injured Object (Kitayama, 1991)—You model yourself after wounded birds you’ve known (and sometimes, loved).
96. Formal Regression (Freud, 1900a; Blum, 1994b)—You stop using logical, time-oriented thought.
97. Hypervigilance—You keep an eye out all the time, even when it’s entirely unnecessary.
98. Temporal Displacement to the Future (Akhtar, 1996)—You imagine “if only…” or “someday…”
99. Fatigue—You feel tired, but you’re not physically ill.
100. Frankness (Feder, 1974)—You’re honest and blunt, but this covers up your actual thoughts and feelings.
101. Turning Self-Criticism onto the Object—You criticize somebody else instead of berating yourself.